Patient Information

Why might I be susceptible?

Periodontal disease is the number one cause of tooth loss amongst adults. This is because a certain number of people (15-20%) have immune systems that overreact to the bad bacteria in their mouths. When this overreaction occurs, the immune system attacks and breaks down the bone and tissue that surround the tooth. This destruction is not predictable and can occur sporadically. None of us knows if we are part of this 15-20% because we can’t usually feel or notice the onset of gum and bone (periodontal) disease. Both adults and children should be routinely checked for gum disease.

Keeping your gums in shape:

Keep in mind that healthy gums DON’T BLEED. You are the key player on the hygiene team. If you don’t do the essential daily brushing and flossing, the rest of your dental team (the dentist and hygienist) is playing short-handed. And sometimes with everyone fighting the good fight, stubborn plaque and bacteria will require some new maintenance techniques for battling gum infection.

Gum disease is not curable, but it is treatable, and in most cases, controllable!

Are you living at high risk for gum disease?

Smoking: Numerous studies have shown that smokers have more gum disease. Smokers have increased levels of tartar in the mouth, and experience more tissue irritation, which makes their gums more susceptible to disease. Smokers have more bone loss and heal less quickly than non-smokers.

Stress: When our immune system is stressed it is difficult to fight off the bacteria that cause gum infections.

Dental neglect: Avoiding the dentist is a lifestyle choice that puts you at risk of contracting diseases of the mouth, teeth and gums.

Floss or die! Your hygienist or dentist works to prevent infection in your mouth from entering the bloodstream and reaching vital organs.

Heart disease: Gum inflammation products and bacteria in gum disease can cause heart disease, and in some cases, double the risk of a fatal heart attack. In addition, bacteria from your mouth may combine with blood-clotting cells called platelets, forming heart-stopping blood clots.

Stroke: New studies show that 70% of the fatty deposits of stroke sufferers contain bacteria, of which 40% comes from the mouth. Diabetics: This group of people are more likely to have gum disease than most people and gum disease makes it more difficult for diabetics to control their blood sugar. Premature birth: Pregnant women who have periodontal disease may be as much as seven times more likely to have a baby born early. Some research suggests that gum disease may increase the level of hormones that induce labour.


Floss before every brushing. Remember that using just a small bit of dental floss to gently slide debris from between the teeth goes a long way towards eradicating plaque and keeping the mouth free from bacteria. Floss should be wrapped around the fingers then stretched tightly between the thumbs, or thumb and first finger, of each hand so that it can be eased carefully between teeth. The floss should be moved carefully up and down the side of each tooth, pushing the floss down just under the gum line.

Figure 1: Dental floss wrapped around both middle fingers with a gap of 5-10cm.

Figure 2: Flossing upper teeth. Note thumb and index finger used to floss through contact and then move up and down.

Figure 3: Flossing lower teeth. Note both index fingers used to floss through contact and then move up and down.

Figure 4: Floss continues to just below gum line.

Other interdental cleaning devices (those devices that clean in between teeth) such as interproximal brushes or wooden or rubber tips are also valuable for certain people including those with missing teeth, large gaps, areas where the gum line has dropped, crowded teeth etc. A dentist is trained to determine the individual needs of a patient, and determine which tool will be the most effective.
Figure 6: Interdental pikster or interproximal brush used to clean in between teeth. This is especially useful for people who cannot use conventional dental floss, such as those who have bridges that join teeth together, and/or orthodontic treatment (this person has a metal retainer behind the lower front teeth).

Mouth washes

It is important to remember that if one cleans the teeth properly with brushing and flossing, there is no need for a mouthwash. To date, the best mouthwashes include an ingredient known as chlorhexidine gluconate. Any mouthwash with this ingredient should only be used for short periods of time as it has problems such as altering taste, staining teeth and margins of fillings etc. Those mouthwashes containing thymol and cetylpyridinium chloride are effective, but to a lesser degree than chlorhexidine gluconate.
Recently, there has been the heated debate over alcohol containing mouthwash related to oral cancer. Some people have dismissed the link, however, one study in 2008 from an Australian journal proposed a link between oral cancer and mouthwash in non-smokers and non-drinkers, and fuelled the debate over whether dentists should be recommending alcohol containing mouthwashes. More and more companies are releasing alcohol free mouthwashes in light of recent evidence. At the moment, alcohol containing mouthwash does not cause oral cancer; it simply has been linked with a higher incidence in some research.

Gum, lollies, high floride tooth paste & CPP-ACP


If you are unable to clean your mouth directly after eating, consider chewing sugar free gum. This will stimulate saliva in your mouth that will naturally help flush out any lingering remnants of food. Also sugar free lollies will promote a similar mechanism.
High fluoride toothpastes should be used only in consultation with dental advice. They usually have five times the fluoride content of normal toothpaste and are advised in patients who are high-risk to dental decay. Other agents such as CPP-ACP (casein phosphopeptide – amorphous calcium phosphate), which are effective in helping remineralise the tooth, are being promoted in patients prone to erosion, dental decay, and dry mouth.

Where does your dentist fit into good oral higiene?

Maintaining good oral hygiene involves going to the dentist every 6-12 months. The dentist is able to:
• Recommend cleaning techniques and products;
• Clean plaque and calculus from the teeth;
• Fill cavities that could lead to further tooth decay;
• Administer fluoride treatments;
• Treat mild gingivitis before it turns into periodontitis;
• Take radiographs; and
• Reinforce oral hygiene instruction over long term.

Key points to remember
• Everyone requires the regular use of a toothbrush and fluoride containing toothpaste, either manual or electric, at least once or twice a day.
• Fluoride is safe in water and toothpaste!! There is less chance of problems if one spits only, rather than rinsing after brushing.
• Soft bristled toothbrushes should be used, and replaced every three months.
• Electric toothbrushes are as effective, if not slightly better than manual toothbrushes.
• Using floss every day, or another device to clean in between your teeth before brushing is essential to maintain good dental hygiene.
• Mouthwashes are not necessary if flossing and brushing are adequate, however those containing chlorhexidine gluconate are most effective if used, but should not be used for long periods of time.
• The dentist is able to determine the best way for every individual to maintain good oral hygiene, and is able to provide feedback and tips.
• It is essential to have 3-12 month visits to the dentist to have dental calculus and dental plaque removed professionally.

The basics of good oral hygiene

Why is developing good dental hygiene important?
Developing good dental hygiene is extremely important in fighting against dental problems such as dental caries, gum disease and halitosis, which are mostly the result of an accumulation of dental plaque and dental calculus.

Dental plaque and dental calculus:
Dental plaque is a white-ish substance that develops every day, and adheres to teeth. It is mostly found on the gum line, or in between teeth. It is composed mainly of microscopic bacteria, food, and saliva, and it matures and becomes a problem if one eats a carbohydrate and sugar rich diet (source of nutrition for bacteria) or does not adequately clean their teeth.
Dental calculus is a form of hardened dental plaque and is caused by the continual accumulation of minerals from saliva. It causes a roughened and hard covering over the tooth, which allows more plaque to adhere to teeth, and potentially cause or exacerbate problems.

The problems of dental plaque and dental calculus?
Dental caries(tooth decay)
Tooth decay occurs when small holes (cavities) form in the tooth due to the accumulation of dental plaque. When the sugar and carbohydrates that are a part of our diet comes into contact with plaque, the result is acid formation. Over time, if the combination of plaque and an acidic environment is left to occur, tooth decay will result.

Gum disease
Gum disease refers to any infection or inflammation of the gums surrounding the teeth, although it is mostly a result of an accumulation of dental plaque. Healthy gums are pink and do not hurt or bleed when brushed. Unhealthy gums are open to the bacteria in plaque causing an inflammation called gingivitis. Gingivitis is a reversible condition, in that if the plaque is removed completely, the problem will solve itself. If the tissues that connect the teeth to the gums (bone, ligaments etc.) become involved, then it is called periodontitis – this step is irreversible.

Bad breath (halitosis)
Halitosis, the technical term for bad breath, is also often the result of unhealthy plaque build up. Halitosis can be a result of many medical conditions. Dental plaque-related halitosis results when the gums become infected or inflamed due to the bacteria in plaque. Keeping the teeth and gums clean, and even brushing the tongue may prevent this condition.

How to maintain good dental hygiene
Good dental hygiene means getting into the routine of thoroughly cleaning the mouth at least once or twice a day, though preferably after every meal. The following discussion considers some important aspects of keeping teeth clean such as brushing, flossing, mouthwashes, and other adjuncts to maintaining good dental health.

How to brush your teeth?

Brushing teeth for two full minutes with fluoride toothpaste and a brush that is small enough to manoeuvre around the inside, outside and top of every tooth in the mouth is considered necessary. Consider listening to an entire song whilst brushing teeth – this will be the appropriate time needed to clean teeth. Replacing a brush every three months has also been shown to be more effective in maintaining good dental health.
When buying a manual toothbrush, use one with soft bristles as this will protect gums from damage to a greater extent. Studies have shown that brushing harder will not remove more dental plaque. Consider investing in an electric toothbrush if more help is needed and it is difficult to use a manual toothbrush. The novelty of a fancy new toothbrush is motivation alone to brush more.

Press gently at a 45-degree angle. Scrub the side closest to the cheek (of the tooth and gum) for a few seconds using a small circular/vibratory motion. In the same manner, move slowly around your mouth until you get to the other side. Pay particular attention to the gum line.

Once on the other side of the mouth, rotate the brush so that it rests against the tooth and gum (on the side closest to your tongue), and use the same angle and same circular scrubbing motion to return to the first tooth.
Next, briskly brush along the top surface of the teeth.

• Then repeat the entire process on the upper or lower set of teeth (depending on start position).
• Do not neglect the roof of the mouth and tongue, as these places also harbor bacteria.
• Try to only spit out the toothpaste, rather than rinsing it all out after brushing, as this will reduce the effect of the fluoride in toothpaste.

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